Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
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ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2018, vol. 27, nr 3, March, p. 363–366

doi: 10.17219/acem/67458

Publication type: original article

Language: English

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Trunk rotation due to persistence of primitive reflexes in early school-age children

Ewa Z. Gieysztor1,A,B,C,D,F, Ludwika Sadowska1,A,E,F, Anna M. Choińska1,A,E,F, Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz1,E,F

1 Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland


Background. The angle of trunk rotation (ATR) is a measurement that allows an objective assessment of a growing child’s spine. Early detection of trunk rotation prevents the progression of scoliosis. One of the factors that predispose children to the formation of faulty posture may be primitive reflexes, which should be integrated in the central nervous system (CNS) by the age of one year. If retained, primitive reflexes affect children’s physical development as well as their development at school.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of trunk asymmetry and the persistence of primitive reflexes and their inter-relationships in early school-age children.
Material and Methods. In this population-based survey, 61 children, average age 6.3 years (SD ±1.43), were examined. The ATR was examined using a scoliometer. The degree of integration of reflexes was assessed using tests developed by S. Goddard to assess the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR), symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STNR), and spinal Galant reflex (SGR) on a 0–4 scale. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and the χ2 test were used in the statistical analysis.
Results. In almost half of the children body rotation was observed, in most cases toward the right (p = 0.012). This asymmetry was positively correlated with non-integrated Galant reflex on the same side (r = 0.335, p = 0.050). The presence of trunk rotation is associated with sex: There was higher frequency of asymmetry among the girls than among the boys.
Conclusion. In the evaluation of scoliosis, it could be useful to examine primitive reflexes as a possible reason for trunk rotation. In the treatment of scoliosis, primitive reflex integration methods should be used in some cases.

Key words

children, the angle of trunk rotation, primitive reflex integration, scoliosis

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