Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2019, vol. 28, nr 8, August, p. 1143–1148

doi: 10.17219/acem/103669

Publication type: review article

Language: English

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Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Advanced heart failure: A review

Klementyna Kępińska1,B,C,D,F, Daria Maria Adamczak2,A,C,D,E,F, Marta Kałużna-Oleksy2,E,F

1 Faculty of Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland

2 1st Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland


Heart failure (HF) has been recognized as a pandemic and is a serious clinical and health problem associated with significant mortality, morbidity and expenditure on healthcare, especially among older people. Progress in medicine has made it possible for an increasing number of people with HF to live longer than ever before. Therefore, a new and serious clinical problem has appeared – advanced heart failure (AHF). A better understanding of this issue is very important, because there are many more patients waiting for transplantations than there are available hearts. The role of the medical team is to keep the patient in the best condition until the heart transplant/implantation of left ventricular assist devices or at least to ensure the best possible quality of life. This article reviews the available data on AHF. The authors have succinctly presented different definitions and methods of the AHF diagnosis established by medical societies, as well as epidemiological data, methods of assessment, and possible treatment strategies.

Key words

heart failure, advanced heart failure, stage D, decompensation

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