Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2019, vol. 28, nr 8, August, p. 1087–1094
Publication type: original article
Genetic polymorphisms in pattern recognition receptors are associated with allergic diseases through gene–gene interactions
1 1st Department and Clinic of Pediatrics, Allergology and Cardiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland
Background. There is evidence that suggests variation in gene encoding pattern recognition receptors, the essential components of innate immunity, might be associated with atopic diseases. However, results have been inconclusive.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to determine the individual associations and possible interactive effects of the CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14), TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) and TLR2 (toll-like receptor 2) polymorphisms on allergic diseases.
Material and Methods. The CD14 C-159T, TLR4 +896A/G and TLR2 A-16934T polymorphisms were identified in 115 children aged from 6 to 17 years. All subjects were selected using a detailed questionnaire which included questions on symptoms and each one underwent skin prick testing. All single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays.
Results. There was no statistically significant correlation between the 3 polymorphisms (CD14 C-159T, TLR4 +896A/G and TLR2/-16934A/T) and either asthma, allergic rhinitis or atopy. We observed that children who were heterozygous or homozygous for both the CD14/-159T and TLR2/-16934A alleles had a 4-fold lower risk for asthma than children who were carriers of the T allele of CD14 but non-carriers of the A allele of TLR2, and an almost 3-fold lower risk for asthma when compared to all other groups. Concerning allergic rhinitis, a similar trend was observed. In addition, the presence of at least 1 A allele in the TLR2/-16934 polymorphism reduced the risk for asthma and allergic rhinitis, but only in children who were homozygous for the common A allele in the TLR4 +896 polymorphism.
Conclusion. Our study supports the idea that the CD14, TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms may not be directly involved in the development of atopic diseases. However, our results suggest that their impact on the risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis might be modulated by gene–gene interactions.
single nucleotide polymorphisms, asthma, innate immunity, atopy, gene–gene interactions
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