Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Adv Clin Exp Med
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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2019, vol. 28, nr 6, June, p. 797–806

doi: 10.17219/acem/91487

Publication type: original article

Language: English

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Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Polyphenols and dietary antioxidant potential, and their relationship with arterial hypertension: A cross-sectional study of the adult population in Poland (WOBASZ II)

Anna Waśkiewicz1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko2,A,C,E,F, Danuta Szcześniewska1,B,C,F, Andrzej Tykarski3,B,E,F, Magdalena Kwaśniewska4,B,E,F, Wojciech Drygas1,4,B,E,F, Anna Maria Witkowska2,A,C,E,F

1 Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, National Institute of Cardiology, Warszawa, Poland

2 Department of Food Biotechnology, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland

3 Department of Hypertension, Angiology and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland

4 Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Poland

Abstract

Background. Oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of most non-communicable diseases, including arterial hypertension (AH). Diet is the major source of exogenous antioxidants, which support the body in the elimination of excessive free radicals.
Objectives. To assess dietary total antioxidant potential (DTAP) and dietary polyphenol intake (DPI), and to determine the relationship between DTAP, DPI and hypertension in the Polish adult population; to indicate dietary sources of DTAP and DPI in participants with and without AH.
Material and Methods. Within the frame of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ II), a random sample of the whole Polish population aged 20 years and above was screened during the years 2013–2014. Dietary habits and blood pressure were assessed in 2,554 men and 3,136 women. Dietary total antioxidant potential and DPI were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with the antioxidant potential and polyphenol contents in foods.
Results. The mean DTAP was 12.36 mmol/day in men and 12.27 mmol/day in women, and DPI was 2069 mg/day and 1989 mg/day, respectively. The DTAP and DPI were associated with reduced odds of AH in the Polish population. After adjusting for confounding variables, higher DTAP (by 1 mmol/day) had reduced odds of AH by 1.3% in men and by 1.8% in women and higher DPI (by 100 mg/day) by 1.1% and by 2.2%, respectively. Regardless of sex and AH, the main sources of DTAP and DPI were beverages, especially coffee and tea (over 50%), fruit (12–24%) and vegetables (12–18%).
Conclusion. The intake of food with high antioxidant potential and rich in polyphenols was associated, slightly but independently of other factors, with a lower chance of hypertension in the adult Polish population. Irrespective of sex and AH, coffee and tea were the basic dietary sources of the antioxidants.

Key words

arterial hypertension, polyphenols, Polish population, dietary antioxidant potential

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