Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2019, vol. 28, nr 4, April, p. 447–452
Publication type: original article
Analysis of adnexal mass managed during cesarean section
1 Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China
2 Hangzhou Women's Hospital, China
Background. Pregnancy with an adnexal mass is one of the most common complications during pregnancy and clinicians are sometimes caught in a dilemma concerning the decision to be made regarding clinical management.
Objectives. The objective of this study was to outline and discuss the clinical features, management and outcomes of adnexal masses that were encountered during a cesarean section (CS) at a university affiliated hospital in China.
Material and Methods. The medical records of the patients with an adnexal mass observed during a CS were retrospectively collected at Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China, from January 1991 to December 2011.
Results. The incidence of adnexal masses was 16.40 per 1000 CSs. The most common pathologic diagnosis was benign ovarian tumor, the 2nd was ovarian endometrioma and the 3rd was theca lutein cyst. Thirteen cases of ovarian malignancies were diagnosed during a CS. Only 388 cases (29.78%) were detected by an ultrasonography (USG) examination before a CS. Eight cases required emergency CS due to abdominal pain; all other patients were clinically asymptomatic. The reasons for abdominal pain included torsion (n = 5), rupture (n = 2) and ovarian enlargement (n = 1). In 13 cases with ovarian endometrioma, cysts ruptured during a CS without any clinical manifestation. No maternal and fetal complications related to surgery were observed.
Conclusion. Preconception care and routine prenatal care, including USG examination, may optimize the detection and management of an adnexal mass. The presumptive ovarian endometrioma detected before pregnancy could be the indication for surgery due to the possibility of spontaneous hemoperitoneum. Theca lutein cysts might be huge and exist throughout the whole pregnancy period. Expectant management is reasonable for an adnexal mass that emerged during pregnancy without suspicion of malignancy. Abdominal pain might be a clue for cyst torsion or rupture.
pregnancy, cesarean delivery, adnexal mass
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