Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2018, vol. 27, nr 12, December, p. 1637–1641
Publication type: original article
ENHO gene expression and serum adropin level in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus
1 Department of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey
2 Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Turkey
3 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey
Background. Adropin, a secreted protein, is encoded by the energy homeostasis-associated gene (ENHO). It is expressed by a variety of tissues and cells. It has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, such as angiogenesis and apoptosis.
Objectives. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ENHO gene expression and serum adropin levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Material and Methods. The study included 36 patients with RA, 22 patients with SLE and 20 healthy controls (HC). Patients with a disease activity score-28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) >2.6 in the RA group and an SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) >6 in the SLE group were accepted as active. Serum adropin levels were analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The ENHO gene and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results. The ENHO gene mRNA expression was significantly higher in the RA group than in the HC group (p = 0.024), although it was similar between the SLE and HC groups (p = 0.920). On the other hand, there were no significant differences among the study groups in terms of serum adropin levels (p > 0.05 for all). Moreover, there was no significant difference in terms of the ENHO expression and serum adropin levels between active and inactive RA and SLE patients.
Conclusion. Although the ENHO gene expression is increased, serum adropin level is not altered in RA. Similarly, adropin seems not to be associated with SLE. However, the potential link between adropin and inflammatory diseases need to be tested by further studies.
rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, adropin, energy homeostasis-associated gene
- McInnes IB, Schett G. The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:2205–2219.
- Scotece M, Conde J, Gómez R, et al. Beyond fat mass: Exploring the role of adipokines in rheumatic diseases. Sci World J. 2011;11:1932–1947.
- Krysiak R, Handzlik-Orlik G, Okopien B. The role of adipokines in connective tissue diseases. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51:513–528.
- Conde J, Scotece M, López VJ, et al. Adipokines: Novel players in rheumatic diseases. Discov Med. 2013;15:73–83.
- Kumar KG, Trevaskis JL, Lam DD, et al. Identification of adropin as a secreted factor linking dietary macronutrient intake with energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. Cell Metab. 2008;8:468–481.
- Lovren F, Pan Y, Quan A, et al. Adropin is a novel regulator of endothelial function. Circulation. 2010;122:185–192.
- Aydin S, Kuloglu T, Aydin S, et al. Expression of adropin in rat brain, cerebellum, kidneys, heart, liver, and pancreas in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;380:73–81.
- Aydin S, Kuloglu T, Aydin S. Copeptin, adropin and irisin concentrations in breast milk and plasma of healthy women and those with gestational diabetes mellitus. Peptides. 2013;47:66–70.
- Lian W, Gu X, Qin Y, Zheng X. Elevated plasma levels of adropin in heart failure patients. Intern Med. 2011;50:1523–1527.
- Aletaha D, Neogi T, Silman AJ, et al. 2010 rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: An American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:1580–1588.
- Petri M, Orbai AM, Alarcón GS, et al. Derivation and validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:2677–2686.
- Prevoo ML, van’t Hof MA, Kuper HH, et al. Modified disease activity scores that include twenty-eight-joint counts. Development and validation in a prospective longitudinal study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38:44–48.
- Bombardier C, Gladman DD, Urowitz MB, et al. Derivation of the SLEDAI. A disease activity index for lupus patients. The Committee on Prognosis Studies in SLE. Arthritis Rheum. 1992;35:630–640.
- Gladman D, Ginzler E, Goldsmith C, et al. The development and initial validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1996;39:363–369.
- Ahn J, Kim J. Mechanisms and consequences of inflammatory signaling in the myocardium. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2012;14(6):510–516.
- Celik A, Balin M, Kobat MA, et al. Deficiency of a new protein associated with cardiac syndrome X; called adropin. Cardiovasc Ther. 2013;31:174–178.
- Mason JC, Libby P. Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammation: Mechanisms underlying premature cardiovascular events in rheumatologic conditions. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(8):482–489c.
- Ku IA, Imboden JB, Hsue PY, Ganz P. Rheumatoid arthritis: Model of systemic inflammation driving atherosclerosis. Circ J. 2009;73:977–985.
- McMahon M, Skaggs B. Pathogenesis and treatment of atherosclerosis in lupus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2014;40(3):475–495.
- Ganesh Kumar K, Zhang J, Gao S, et al. Adropin deficiency is associated with increased adiposity and insulin resistance. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20:1394–1402.
- Gozal D, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Bhattacharjee R, et al. Circulating adropin concentrations in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea: Potential relevance to endothelial function. J Pediatr. 2013;163:1122–1126.
- Topuz M, Celik A, Aslantas T, et al. Plasma adropin levels predict endothelial dysfunction like flow-mediated dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Investig Med. 2013;61:1161–1164.
- Palma A, Sainaghi PP, Amoruso A, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in monocytes/macrophages from rheumatoid arthritis patients: Relation to disease activity and therapy efficacy – a pilot study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012;51:1942–1952.
- Zhou JJ, Ma JD, Mo YQ, et al. Down-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta alleviates the proinflammatory effect of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes through inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B activation. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:472. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13075-014-0472-6
- Marder W, Khalatbari S, Myles JD, et al. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ pioglitazone improves vascular function and decreases disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000441. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.113.000441
- Laragione T, Gulko PS. Liver X receptor regulates rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocyte invasiveness, matrix metalloproteinase 2 activation, interleukin-6 and CXCL10. Mol Med. 2012;18:1009–1017.
- Sayin O, Tokgöz Y, Arslan N. Investigation of adropin and leptin levels in pediatric obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2014;27:479–484.
- Tian G, Liang JN, Wang ZY, Zhou D. Emerging role of leptin in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2014;177(3):557–570.
- Vadacca M, Zardi EM, Margiotta D, et al. Leptin, adiponectin and vascular stiffness parameters in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Intern Emerg Med. 2013;8(8):705–712.