Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Adv Clin Exp Med
Impact Factor (IF) – 1.227
Index Copernicus (ICV 2018) – 157.72
MNiSW – 40
Average rejection rate – 84.38%
ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download PDF

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2016, vol. 25, nr 4, July-August, p. 673–679

doi: 10.17219/acem/62922

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Alpha-Tocopherol May Protect Hepatocytes Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Endurance Training in Growing Organisms

Magdalena Górnicka1,A,B,C,D,F, Małgorzata Drywień1,B,C,F, Joanna Frąckiewicz1,B,F, Bogdan Dębski2,E,F, Agata Wawrzyniak1,E,F

1 Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland

2 Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland


Background. Training-induced oxidative stress can be reduced by α-tocopherol. Adequate intake of α-tocopherol could have health benefits for previously untrained young subjects.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of training and different doses of α-tocopherol on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat livers.
Material and Methods. Young male Wistar rats (n = 40) were randomly divided into eight groups (undergoing training and not undergoing training, given orally administered α-tocopherol doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 4.0 mg). Every day for 10 consecutive days, the rats in the training groups ran for 15 min on a treadmill at 20 m/min to induce oxidative stress. Hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated based on the liver concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS).
Results. The liver concentrations of α-tocopherol were significantly influenced by α-tocopherol doses (p < 0.001) and physical exercise (p < 0.001). The liver concentrations of α-tocopherol increased in response to the highest dose (4 mg/d) of α-tocopherol in the non-training groups. In the training groups, the liver concentrations of α-tocopherol were independent of the dose. The levels of TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation, were lowest in the training and non-training rats administered 4.0 mg of α-tocopherol. Physical exercise and α-tocopherol doses significantly influenced TBARS concentrations (p = 0.004, p < 0.05).
Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that running training causes lipids peroxidation and reduces α-tocopherol levels in the liver, but it does not contribute to DNA damage. Increased liver concentrations of α-tocopherol were found to exert a protective effect against oxidative damage induced by endurance training. An adequate intake of α-tocopherol is important for previously untrained young subjects.

Key words

oxidative stress, rats, 8-OHdG, α-tocopherol, TBARS

References (34)

  1. Wasserman DH, Cherington AD: Hepatic fuel metabolism during muscular work, role and regulation. Am J Physiol 1991, 260, 811–824.
  2. Hoene M, Weigert C: The stress response of the liver to physical exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev 2010, 16, 163–183.
  3. Bloomer RJ, Goldfarb AH, McKenzie MJ: Oxidative stress response to aerobic exercise, comparison of antioxidant supplements. Med Sci Sports 2006, 38, 1098–1105.
  4. Huang HY, Helzlsouer KJ, Appel LJ: The effect of vitamin C and vitamin E on oxidative DNA damage, results from a randomized controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000, 9, 647–652.
  5. Möller P, Loft S: Dietary antioxidants and beneficial effect on oxidatively damaged DNA. Free Radic Biol Med 2006, 41, 388–415.
  6. Zaremba T, Oliński R: Oksydacyjne uszkodzenia DNA – ich analiza oraz znaczenie kliniczne. Post Bioch 2010, 56, 124–138.
  7. Ogonovszky H, Sasvári M, Dosek A, Berkes I, Kaneko T, Tahara S: The effects of moderate, strenuous and overtraining on oxidative stress markers and DNA repair in rat liver. Can J Appl Physiol 2005, 30, 186–195.
  8. Choi EY, Cho YO: The effects of physical training on antioxidative status under exercise-induced oxidative stress. Nutr Res Pract 2007, 1, 14–18.
  9. Liu J, Yeo CH, Övervik-Douki HT, Doniger JS, Chu WD, Brooks AG, Ames NB: Chronically and acutely exercise rats, biomarkers of oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidants. J Appl Physiol 2000, 89, 21–28.
  10. Taysi S, Oztasan N, Efe H, Polat MF, Gumustekin K, Siktar E: Endurance training attenuates the oxidative stress due to acute exhaustive exercise in rat liver. Acta Physiol Hung 2008, 95, 337–334.
  11. Claycombe KJ, Meydani SN: Vitamin E and genome stability. Mut Res 2001, 475, 37–44.
  12. Avellini L, Chiaradia E, Gaiti A: Effects of exercise training, selenium and vitamin E on some free radical scavengers in horses. Comp Biochem Phys B 1999, 123, 147–154.
  13. Sacheck JM, Decker EA, Clarcson PM: The effect of diet on vitamin E intake and oxidative stress in response to acute exercise in female athletes. Eur J Appl Phys 2000, 83, 40–46.
  14. Jordão AA, Chiarello PG, Arantes MR, Meirelles MS, Vannucchi H: Effect of an acute dose of ethanol on lipid peroxidation in rats, action of vitamin. Food Chem Toxicol 2004, 42, 459–464.
  15. Uchida T, Abe C, Nomura S, Ichikawa T, Ikeda S: Tissue distribution of α- and γ-tocotrienol and γ-tocopherol in rats and interference with their accumulation by α-tocopherol. Lipids 2012, 47, 129–139.
  16. Wawrzyniak A, Górnicka M, Hamułka J, Gajewska M, Drywień M, Pierzynowska J, Gronowska-Senger A: α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and β-carotene protect against oxidative stress but reveal no direct influence on p53 expression in rats subjected to stress. Nutr Res 2013, 33, 868–875.
  17. Wawrzyniak A, Hamułka J, Drywień M, Górnicka M, Pierzynowska J, Wojtaś M, Gajewska M, Frąckiewicz J, Gronowska-Senger A: Antioxidant vitamins as oxidative stress markers in rat plasma after physical exercise. Polish J Food Nutr 2014, 64, 277–281.
  18. Reeves PG: Components of the AIN-93 diets as improvements in the AIN-76A diet. J Nutr 1997, 127, 838–841.
  19. Gronowska-Senger A, Górnicka M, Kołodziejska K: Tocopherol acetate vs. oxidative stress induced by physical exercise in rats. Pol J Food Nutr Sci 2009, 59, 263–269.
  20. Katsanidis E, Addis PB. Novel HPLC analysis of tocopherols, tokotrienols and cholesterol in tissue. Free Rad Biol Med 1999, 27, 1137–1140.
  21. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K: Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979, 95, 351–358.
  22. Siomek A, Gackowski D, Rozalski R, Dziaman T, Szpila A, Guz J: Higherleukocyte 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine and lower plasma ascorbate in aging humans? Antioxid Redox Signal 2007, 9, 143–150.
  23. Mastaloudis A, Morrow JD, Hopkins DW, Devaraj S, Traber MG: Antioxidant supplementation prevents exerciseinduced lipid peroxidation, but not inflammation, in ultramarathon runners. Free Rad Biol Med 2004, 36, 1329–1341.
  24. Bucioli S, de Abreu CL, Valenti WE, Vannucchi H: Effects of vitamin E supplementation on renal non-enzymatic antioxidants in young rats submitted to exhaustive exercise stress. BMC Complem Altern Med 2011, 11, 23–31.
  25. Sureda A, Tauler P, Aquilo A, Cases N, Llompart I, Tur JA, Pons A: Antioxidant supplementation influences the neutrophil tocopherol associated protein expression, but not the inflammatory response to exercise. Cen Eur J Biol 2007, 2, 56–70.
  26. Duthie SJ, Gardner PT, Morrice PC, Wood SG, Pirie L, Bestwick CC: DNA stability and lipid peroxidation in vitamin E-deficient rats in vivo and colon cells in vitro. Eur J Nutr 2005, 44, 195–203.
  27. Kinoshita S, Tsuji E: Vitamin E supplementation attenuates strenuous exercise induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation of the liver in rats. Kawasaki J Med Welfare 2008, 14, 1–7.
  28. Codoner-Franch P, Muniz P, Gasco E, Domingo JV, Valls-Belles V: Effect of a diet supplemented with α-tocopherol and β-carotene an ATP and antioxidant levels after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2008, 43, 13–18.
  29. Pozzi R, Rosa JC, Eguchi R, Oller do Nascimento CM, Oyama LM, Aguiar O Jr: Genetic damage in multiple organs of acutely exercised rats. Cell Biochem Funct 2010, 28, 632–636.
  30. Fisher-Wellman K, Bloomer RJ: Acute exercise and oxidative stress, a 30 year history. Dyn Med 2009, 8, 1–25.
  31. Radak Z, Kumagai S, Nakamoto H, Goto S: 8-Oxoguanosine and uracil repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in red and white skeletal muscle of exercise-trained old rats. J Appl Physiol 2007, 102, 1696–1701.
  32. Nakamoto H, Kaneko T, Tahara S, Hayashi E, Naito H, Radak Z, Goto S: Regular exercise reduces 8-oxodG in the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and modulates the DNA repair activity in the liver of old rats. Exp Geerontol 2007, 42, 287–295.
  33. Ohkuwa T, Itoh H, Yamamoto T, Minami C, Yamazaki Y, Kimoto S, Yoshida R: Effects of hypoxia and hypoxic training on 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and glutathione levels in the liver. Metabolism 2004, 53, 716–719.
  34. Llorente-Cantarero FJ, Gil-Campos M, Benitez-Sillero JD, Muñoz-Villanueva MC, Tasset I, Pérez-Navero JL: Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness. Appl Physiol Nutr Met 2013, 38, 421–426.