Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2016, vol. 25, nr 2, March-April, p. 335–340
Publication type: original article
Patterns of Poisoning in Urban and Rural Children: A Single-Center Study
1 Patterns of Poisoning in Urban and Rural Children: A Single-Center Study
Background. Poisoning among children is a current issue in pediatrics. The pattern and risk factors of poisoning are heterogeneous and vary within the same country.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze the determinants in the incidence and nature of poisoning between urban and rural children, in order to identify children at higher risk.
Material and Methods. The study entailed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 848 children admitted to the Department of Pediatrics at the Medical University of Lublin, Poland, due to exposure to poison from July 2008 to December 2012. The patients were divided into urban and rural.
Results. The majority of the subjects came from urban areas (64.50%). In both groups the most numerous were children aged ≤ 5 years and 14–15 years. Among urban boys, children younger than 5 years old predominated, while among urban girls, teenagers aged 14–15 years comprised the largest group (p = 0.00). In the rural population children younger than 5 years were the most prevalent regardless of gender. The incidence of intentional intoxication increased with age, while the incidence of accidental poisoning decreased with age (p = 0.00). Among urban children there was a significant association between gender and the nature of poisoning (p = 0.00). The most common cause of poisoning was the use of non-pharmaceuticals, with alcohol predominating.
Conclusion. The study indicates that poisoning is more likely in urban children. Among urban children there is a bimodal gender distribution with a preponderance of pre-school boys in accidental poisoning and of teenage girls in intentional ones. However, among rural children the most prevalent was accidental poisoning by improperly stored medicines and household chemicals. Urban children commonly use alcohol and narcotics.
poisoning, children, adolescents, alcohol, medications
- National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene. General Hospital Morbidity Rates [Internet]. [cited 2014 June 03]. Available from: http://www.statystyka.medstat.waw.pl/wyniki/wyniki.htm.
- Franklin RL, Rodgers GB: Unintentional child poisonings treated in United States hospital emergency departments: national estimates of incident cases, population-based poisoning rates, and product involvement. Pediatrics 2008, 122, 1244–1251.
- Michael JB, Sztajnkrycer MD: Deadly pediatric poisons: nine common agents that kill at low doses. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2004, 22, 1019–1050.
- Zawadzka-Gralec A, Zielińska-Duda H, Czerwionka-Szaflarska M, Węgrzynowska E, Kurylak D, Siwka S, Pufal E, Bloch-Bogusławska E, Śliwka K: Acute poisoning in children and adolescent. Pediatr Pol 2008, 83, 373–379.
- Lamireau T, Llanas B, Kennedy A, Fayon M, Penouil F, Faverell-Garrigues JC, Demarquez JL: Epidemiology of poisoning in children: A 7 year survey in a paediatric emergency care unit. Eur J Emerg Med 2002, 9, 9–14.
- Lin YR, Wu TK, Liu TA, Chou CC, Wu HP: Poison exposure and outcome of children admitted to a pediatric emergency department. World J Pediatr 2011, 7, 143–149.
- Kivistö JE, Arvola T, Parkkari J, Mattila VM: Paediatric poisonings treated in one Finnish main university hospital between 2002 and 2006. Acta Paediatr 2008, 97, 790–794.
- Bukowska W, Szlagatys A, Korzon M: Intoxication in children and adolescents – new problems. Przegl Pediatr 2001, 31, 50–54.
- Vieira LJ, Freitas ML, Pordeus AM, Lira SV, Silva JG: ‘Broken hearted teenagers’: Adolescents that had gone through suicide attempt. Cienc Saúde Coletiva 2009, 14, 1825–1834.
- Andiran N, Sarikayalar F: Pattern of acute poisonings in childhood in Ankara: What has changed in twenty years? Turk J Pediatr 2004, 46, 147–152.
- Patel B, Kendrick D, Groom L: Trends in children’s attendance at hospital Accident and Emergency Departments for unintentional poisoning from 1990 to 1999 in the UK. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2006, 13, 55–57.
- Pawłowicz U, Wasilewska A, Olanski W, Stefanowicz M: Epidemiological study of acute poisoning in children: A 5-year retrospective study in the Paediatric University Hospital in Bialystok, Poland. Emerg Med J 2013, 30, 712–716.
- Marchi AG, Renier S, Messi G, Barbone F: Childhood poisoning: A population study in Trieste, Italy 1975–1994. J Clin Epidemiol 1998, 51, 687–695.
- Rajka T, Heyerdahl F, Hovda KE, Stiksrud B, Jacobsen D: Acute child poisonings in Oslo: A 2-year prospective study. Acta Paediatr 2007, 96, 1355–1359.
- Zawadzka-Gralec A, Walkowski M, Zielińska I, Gąsiorowska J: Changing trends in acute occidental intoxications in children and adolescents. Pediatr Pol 2007, 82, 446–451.
- Pawłowska-Kamieniak A, Mroczkowska-Juchkiewicz A, Gołyska D, Pac-Kożuchowska E: Analiza społeczno-kliniczna przypadków upojenia alkoholowego u dzieci. Probl Hig Epidemiol 2011, 92, 692–694.
- Sierosławski J: The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Report from Poznan. Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warszawa 2007.