Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Adv Clin Exp Med
Impact Factor (IF) – 1.514
Index Copernicus (ICV 2018) – 157.72
MNiSW – 40
Average rejection rate – 84.38%
ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download PDF

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2014, vol. 23, nr 2, March-April, p. 299–305

Publication type: review article

Language: English

The Role and Application of Exfoliative Cytology in the Diagnosis of Oral Mucosa Pathology – Contemporary Knowledge with Review of the Literature

Krzysztofa Kazanowska1,D, Agnieszka Hałoń2,D, Małgorzata Radwan-Oczko3,A,D,F

1 NZOZ Lek-Stom, Wrocław, Poland

2 Department of Pathomorphology and Oncological Cytology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

3 Department of Oral Pathology, Chair of Periodontology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

Abstract

On the basis of the current available literature, the authors have presented a short description of cytological examination and its application in the oral mucosa disease diagnostic process. furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of this method are described. The available diagnostic tools used for oral smears were reviewed as well as more and more often available methods which aim at making the diagnosis process more accurate and more favorable for patients. Oral cytology analysis may, in the near future, be a very useful examination for patients in terms of diagnostics and monitoring, not only during the treatment but also afterwards. The authors would like to demonstrate what a beneficial tool this cytological examination could be as a fast and cheap cancer prophylactic test. This opinion is based on the fact that this cytological method has significantly improved the detection of uterine cervical cancer during a gynecological examination since the introduction of the Papanicolau technique in the 40s.

Key words

oral mucosa, oral pathology, exfoliative cytology.

References (28)

  1. Rajput DV, Tupkari JV: Early detection of oral cancer: PAP and AgNOR staining in brush biopsies. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2010, 14, 52–58.
  2. Williams DW, Walker R, Lewis MA, Allison RT, Potts AJ: Adherence of Candida albicans to oral epithelial cells differentiated by Papanicolaou staining. J Clin Pathol 1999, 52, 529–531.
  3. Renwik EL: Papanicolau staining. Supervisor of cytology technicians. Hosp. Nac. Prof. dr. A. Posadas (Prof. dr. A. Posadas National Hospital), El Palomar – Buenos Aires – Republic of Argentina, 07.27.2009.
  4. Deli R: value and limitations of oral exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of malignancies. Minerva Stomatol 1975, 24, 136–157.
  5. Endo H, Rees TD, Kuyama K, Matsue M, Yamamoto H: Use of oral exfoliative cytology to diagnose desquamative gingivitis: a pilot study. Quintessence Int 2008, 39, 152–161.
  6. Cowpe JG, Longmore RB, Green MW: Quantitative exfoliative cytology of abnormal oral mucosal smears. J R Soc Med 1988, 81, 509–513.
  7. Patel PV, Kumar S, Kumar V, Vidya G: Quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliated normal gingival cells. J Cytol 2011, 28, 66–72.
  8. Ogden GR: The future role for oral exfoliative cytology – bleak or bright? Oral Oncol 1997, 33, 2–4.
  9. Ogden GR, Cowpe JG, Green M: Cytobrush and wooden spatula for oral exfoliative cytology. A comparison. ActaCytol 1992, 36, 706–710.
  10. Reboiras-López M, Pérez-Sayáns M, Somoza-Martín J, Antúnez-López J, Gándara-Vila P, Gayoso-Diz P, Gándara-Rey J, García-García A: Comparison of three sampling instruments, Cytobrush, Curette and OralCdx, for liquid-based cytology of the oral mucosa. Biotech Histochem 2012, 87, 51–58.
  11. Scheifele C, Schmidt-Westhausen AM, Dietrich T, Reichart PA: The sensitivity and specificity of the OralCdx technique: evaluation of 103 cases. Oral Oncol 2004, 40, 824–828.
  12. Kosicki DM, Riva C, Pajarola GF, Burkhardt A, Grätz KW: OralCdx brush biopsy-a tool for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 2007, 117, 222–227.
  13. Kujan O, Desai M, Sargent A, Bailey A, Turner A, Sloan P: Potential applications of oral brush cytology with liquid-based technology: results from a cohort of normal oral mucosa. Oral Oncol 2006, 42, 810–818.
  14. Main DM, Keat SM: Suction sampling technique for obtaining standardized cytologic specimens from the oral mucosa. Acta Cytol 1990, 34, 695–698.
  15. Papamarkakis K, Bird B, Schubert JM, Miljković M, Wein R, Bedrossian K, Laver N, Diem M: Cytopathology by optical methods: spectral cytopathology of the oral mucosa. Lab Invest 2010, 90, 589–598.
  16. Hayama FH, Motta AC, Silva Ade P, Migliari DA: Liquid-based preparations versus conventional cytology: specimen adequacy and diagnostic agreement in oral lesions. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2005, 10, 115–122.
  17. Kujan O, Desai M, Sargent A, Bailey A, Turner A, Sloan P: Potential applications of oral brush cytology with liquid-based technology: results from a cohort of normal oral mucosa. Oral Oncol 2006, 42, 810–818.
  18. Remmerbach TW, Weidenbach H, Hemprich A, Böcking A: dNA-Image-Cytometry: diagnostic aid in brush cytology of oral cancer. March 7–10, 2001, 30th Meeting of the AAdR Chicago, IL.
  19. Sudbo J, Kildal J, Risberg B, Koppang HS, Danielsen HE, Reith A: dNA content as a prognostic marker in patients with oral leukoplakia. N Engl J Med 2001, 344, 1270–1278.
  20. Hande AH, Chaudhary MS: Cytomorphometric analysis of buccal mucosa of tobacco chewers. Rom J Morphol Embryol 2010, 51, 527–532.
  21. Hande AH, Chaudhary MS: Cytomorphometric analysis of buccal mucosa of tobacco chewers. Rom J Morphol Embryol 2010, 51, 527–532.
  22. Cowpe JG, Longmore RB, Green MW: Quantitative exfoliative cytology of normal oral squames: an age, site and sex-related survey. J R Soc Med 1985, 78, 995–1004.
  23. Doseva D, Cristov K, Kristeva K: dNA content in reactive hyperplasia, precancerosis, and carcinomas of the oral cavity. A cytophotometric study. Acta Histochem 1984, 75, 113–119.
  24. Ogden GR, Leigh I, Chisholm DM, Cowpe JG, Lane EB: Exfoliative cytology of normal oral mucosa. Assessing the basal cell keratin phenotype. Acta Cytol 1996, 40, 933–936.
  25. Keles M, Tozoglu U, Unal D, Caglayan F, Uyanik A, Emre H, Cayir K, Aydinli B: Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa in kidney transplant patients: a cytomorphometric study. Transplant Proc 2011, 43, 871–875.
  26. Hallikerimath S, Sapra G, Kale A, Malur PR: Cytomorphometric analysis and assessment of periodic acid Schiff positivity of exfoliated cells from apparently normal buccal mucosa of type 2 diabetic patients. Acta Cytol 2011, 55, 197–202.
  27. Ban TS, Kok TA, Venkatesh RN: Qualitative and quantitative exfoliative cytology of normal oral mucosa in type 2 diabetic patients. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2008, 13, 693–696.
  28. Loss R, Sandrin R, França BH, de Azevedo-Alanis LR, Grégio AM, Machado MÂ, de Lima AA: Cytological analysis of the epithelial cells in patients with oral candidiasis. Mycoses 2011, 54, 130–135.