Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2014, vol. 23, nr 2, March-April, p. 245–251
Publication type: original article
Analysis of the Prevalence of Medicines and Psychoactive Substances Among Drivers in the Material of the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Medical University of Bialystok
1 Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of bialystok, Poland
Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of medicines and psychoactive substances in the blood of drivers.
Material and Methods. The data, recorded in 2010–2011, was comprised of 274 blood samples of sober drivers (269 men and 5 women). 126 drivers within the group died immediately on the spot (mean age 29.7 years, range 19–53 years), 31 drivers survived the accident (mean age 32.4 years, range 24–69 years), and 117 drivers were stopped for traffic control (mean age 26.4 years, range 17–49 years). eLISa immuno-enzymatic blood tests detecting medicines and psychoactive substances were performed by the Neogen company. The presence of the tested substances was confirmed by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography with a mass detector (gc/MS and Lc/MS).
Results. from the total number of 274 individuals, the presence of psychoactive substances was found in 132 cases, which accounted for 48.2% of all subjects. The drivers found to be under the influence of medicines and psychoactive substances were most often stopped for a roadside survey, among whom the percentage of positive results was 92.3% (108 cases out of 117 subjects). among the total number of positive findings the psychoactive substances used, alone or in combination with other agents, were tetrahydrocannabinols (42.4%), amphetamines (26.5%), opiates (25.7%) and benzodiazepines (15.1%), and their concentration in the blood did not exceed toxic levels.
Conclusion. In the group of psychoactive substances most often used, either alone or in combination with other agents, there were tetrahydrocannabinols, whose high percentage of positive results in drivers stopped for a roadside control may be explained by commissioning studies on early screening. concentrations of the substances in most cases did not exceed toxic levels. Roadside examinations, on the basis of their alcohol-like effect, were performed primarily on male drivers.
drivers, road accidents, psychoactive substances, drugs.
- Ojaniemi KK, Lintonen TP, Impinen AO, Lillsunde PM, Ostamo AI: Trends in driving under the influence of drugs: a register-based study of DUID suspects during 1977–2007. accid anal Prev 2009, 41, 191–196.
- Senna MC, Augsburger M, Aebi B, Briellmann TA, Donze´ N, Dubugnon JL, Iten PX, Staub C, Sturm W, Sutter K: first nationwide study on driving under the influence of drugs in Switzerland. forensic Sci Int 2010, 198, 11–16.
- Morland J, Steentoft A, Simonsen KW, Ojanpera I, Vuori E, Magnusdottir K, Kristinsson J, Ceder G, Kronstrand R, Christophersen A: Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern european countries: a study of fatally injured drivers. accid anal Prev 2011, 43, 1920–1926.
- Legrand SA, Isalberti C, Van der Linden T, Bernhoft IM, Hels T, Simonsen KW, Favretto D, Ferrara SD, Caplinskiene M, Minkuviene Z, Pauliukevicius A, Houwing S, Mathijssen R, Lillsunde P, Langel K, Blencowe T, Verstrate AG: alcohol and drugs in seriously injured drivers in six european countries. Drug Test. anal. 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.1393 www.drugtestinganalysis.com.
- Galer-Tatarowicz K, Wiergowski M, Szpiech B, Reguła K, Jankowski Z: Narkomania w świetle działalności orzeczniczej Katedry i Zakładu Medycyny Sądowej akademii Medycznej w gdańsku w latach 1996–2005. arch Med Sadowej Kryminol 2007, 3, 277–284.
- Olszowy Z, Albert M, Celiński R, Kulikowska J, Nowicka J: Psychoactive agents in traffic users in the practice of forensic Medicine Department, Medical academy of Silesia, Katowice. Probl forensic Sci 2005, 62, 210–215.
- Kała M, Adamowicz P, Chudzikiewicz E, Lechowicz W, Pufal E, Sykutera M, Piekoszewski W, Pach J, Śliwka K: Substances acting similarly to alcohol in the organism of drivers. Probl forensic Sci 2005, 62, 133–144.
- Niemcunowicz-Janica A, Wardaszka Z, Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek I: badania nad obecnością środków odurzających i substancji psychotropowych w organizmach uczestników ruchu drogowego w materiale Zakładu Medycyny Sądowej UM w białymstoku. arch Med Sadowej Kryminol 2009, 3, 194–198.
- Winek CL, Wahba WW, Winek CL Jr., Balzer TW: Drug and chemical blood-level data 2001. forensic Sci Int 2001, 122, 107–123.
- Jones AW, Holmgren A: What non-alcohol drugs are used by drinking drivers in Sweden? Toxicological results from ten years of forensic blood samples. J Safety Res 2012, 43, 151–156.
- Wilhelmi BG, Cohen SP: a framework for “driving under the influence of drugs” policy for the opioid using driver. Pain Physician 2012, 15, Suppl 3, 215–230.
- Lacey JH, Kelley-Baker T, Voas RB, Romano E, Furr-Holden CD, Torres P, Berning A: alcoholand druginvolved driving in the United States: methodology for the 2007 National Roadside Survey 2011, 35, 319–353.
- Vindenes V, Lund HM, Andresen W, Gjerde H, Ikdahl SE, Christophersen AS, Øiestad EL: Detection of drugs of abuse in simultaneously collected oral fluid, urine and blood from Norwegian drug drivers. forensic Sci Int 2012, 219, 165–171.
- Kriikku P, Wilhelm L, Rintatalo J, Hurme J, Kramer J, Ojanperä I: Phenazepam abuse in finland: findings from apprehended drivers, post-mortem cases and police confiscations. forensic Sci Int 2012, 220, 111–117.
- Jones AW, Holmgren A, Kugelberg FC: concentrations of scheduled prescription drugs in blood of impaired drivers: considerations for interpreting the results. Ther Drug Monit 2007, 29, 248–260.
- Gjerde H, Christophersen AS, Normann PT, Mørland J: Toxicological investigations of drivers killed in road traffic accidents in Norway during 2006–2008. forensic Sci Int 2011, 212, 102–109.
- Jones AW, Holmgren A, Kugelberg FC: Driving under the influence of cannabis: a 10-year study of age and gender differences in the concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol in blood. addiction 2008, 103, 452–461.
- Giovanardi D, Castellana CN, Pisa S, Poppi B, Pinetti D, Bertolini A, Ferrari A: Prevalence of abuse of alcohol and other drugs among injured drivers presenting to the emergency department of the University Hospital of Modena, Italy. Drug alcohol Depend 2005, 80, 135–138.
- Jones AW, Kugelberg FC, Holmgren A, Ahlner J: five-year update on the occurrence of alcohol and other drugs in blood samples from drivers killed in road-traffic crashes in Sweden. forensic Sci Int 2009, 186, 56–62.
- Simonsen KW, Steentoft A, Hels T, Bernhoft IM, Rasmussen BS, Linnet K: Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark. forensic Sci Int 2012, 221, 33–38.
- Bogstrand ST, Gjerde H, Normann PT, Rossow I, Ekeberg O: alcohol, psychoactive substances and non-fatal road traffic accidents – a case-control study. bMc Public Health 2012, 12, 734.
- Holmgren A, Holmgren P, Kugelberga FC, Jonesa AW, Ahlnera J: Predominance of Illicit Drugs and Poly-Drug Use among Drug-Impaired Drivers in Sweden. Traffic Inj Prev 2007, 8, 361–367.
- Jones AW, Holmgren A, Kugelberg FC: Driving Under the Influence of Opiates: concentration Relationships between Morphine, codeine, 6-acetyl Morphine, and ethyl Morphine in blood. J anal Toxicol 2008, 32, 265–272.
- Buszewicz G, Kiszka M, Czekajska-Łuckiewicz H: Interpretacja wyników pośmiertnych badań toksykologicznych w zatruciach toluenem, na przykładzie pięciu przypadków. arch Med Sadowej Kryminol 2000, Suppl 1, 95–99.
- Vindenes V, Jordbru D, Knapskog AB, Kvan E, Mathisrud G, Slørdal L, Mørland J: Impairment based legislative limits for driving under the influence of non alcohol drugs in Norway. forensic Sci Int 2012, 219, 1–11.
- Wille SM, Raes E, Lillsunde P, Gunnar T, Laloup M, Samyn N, Christophersen AS, Moeller MR, Hammer KP, Verstraete AG: Relationship between oral fluid and blood concentrations of drugs of abuse in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. Ther Drug Monit 2009, 31, 511–519.