Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2014, vol. 23, nr 1, January-February, p. 91–96
Publication type: original article
Morphometric Measurements of MRI Findings in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Turkey
2 Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Turkey
Background. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common degenerative neurological disorders among elderly people, and is associated with progressive cerebral atrophy. AD is characterized by deterioration of the memory, difficulties with language, alterations in behavior and dysfunction in daily activities.
Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to measure the total volumes of different parts of the brain of AD patients and healthy gender-matched controls using Cavalieri’s volume estimate method, and to establish some brain ratios. Moreover, the authors wanted to test this method in measuring the volumes of various parts of the brain from MRI scans.
Material and Methods. In this study, the MRI scans of 15 right-handed individuals with probable AD and 10 healthy controls were assessed. Cavalieri’s volume estimate method was applied to the brain MRI scans to calculate the volumes of various parts of the brain.
Results. While the measurements showed a marked increase in the volume of cerebral ventricles and sulci in AD patients in comparison to the gender-matched controls, the volumes of cortical gray matter and cerebral hemispheric brain matter were reduced considerably. However, no significant differences were detected in the volume of the cerebellum + brainstem or intracranium in AD patients. There were also no major variations between male and female values of the two groups.
Conclusion. Overall, cerebral hemisphere and cortical gray matter atrophies were the most remarkable findings among AD patients in the present study; consequently, expansions of both the ventricles and subarachnoid space were formed. Cavalieri’s volume estimate method was very efficient in calculating the volumes of different parts of brain from the MRI scans of both groups.
Alzheimer, brain, morphometry, Cavalieri’s principle.
- Bachman, DL, Wolf, PA, Linn, RT, Knoefel JE, Cobb JL, Belanger AJ, White LR, D’Agostino RB: Incidence of dementia and probable Alzheimer’s disease in a general population: the Framingham study. Neurology 1993, 43, 515–519.
- Wilcock, GK, Esiri, MM: Plaques, tangles and dementia. A quantitative study. J Neurol Sci 1982, 56, 343–356.
- Delaère P, Duyckaerts C, Brion, JP, Poulain V, Hauw JJ: Tau, paired helical filaments and amyloid in the neocortex: a morphometric study of 15 cases with graded intellectual status in aging and senile dementia of Alzheimer type. Acta Neuropathol 1989, 77, 645–653.
- Mann DM, Yates PO, Marcyniuk B: Pathologic heterogeneity of Alzheimer’s disease Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988, 45, 962–963.
- Zamrini, E, De Santi S, Tolar M: Imaging is superior to cognitive testing for early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 2004, 25, 685–691.
- Jessen F: Novel neuroimaging perspectives in the diagnosis of dementia. Nervenarzt 2008, 79, 129–36.
- Killiany RJ, Gomez-Isla T, Moss M, Kikinis R, Sandor T, Jolesz F, Tanzi R, Jones K, Hyman BT, Albert MS: Use of structural magnetic resonance imaging to predict who will get Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol 2000, 47, 430–439.
- Teipel SJ, Ewers M, Wolf S, Jessen F, Kölsch H, Arlt S, Luckhaus C, Schönknecht P, Schmidtke K, Heuser I, Frölich L, Ende G, Pantel J, Wiltfang J, Rakebrandt F, Peters O, Born C, Kornhuber J, Hampel H: Multicentre variability of MRI-based medial temporal lobe volumetry in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychiatry Res 2010, 182, 244–250.
- McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM: Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 1984, 34, 939–944.
- Howard CV, Reed MG: Estimation of reference volume using the Cavalieri method. Unbiased stereology, BIOS Scientific Publishers. 1st edition. Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore 1998, 39–42.
- Creasy H, Schwartz M, Frederickson H, Haxby JV, Rapoport SI: Quantitative computed tomography in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Neurology 1986, 36, 1563–1568.
- Murphy DGM, DeCarli CD, Daly E, Gillette JA, McIntosh AR, Haxby JV, Teichberg D, Schapiro MB, Rapoport SI, Horwitz B: Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging in men with dementia of the Alzheimer type: Correlations with disease severity. Biol Psychiatry 1993, 34, 612–621.
- Barber R, Ballard C, McKeith IG, Gholkar A, O’Brien JT: MRI volumetric study of dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurology 2000, 54, 1304–1309.
- Ridha BH, Anderson VM, Barnes J, Boyes RG, Price SL, Rossor MN, Whitwell JL, Jenkins L, Black RS, Grundman M, Fox NC: Volumetric MRI and cognitive measures in Alzheimer disease: comparison of markers of progression. J Neurol 2008, 255, 567–574.
- Matsumae M, Kikinis R, Mórocz I, Lorenzo AV, Albert MS, Black PM, Jolesz FA: Intracranial compartment volumes in patients with enlarged ventricles assessed by magnetic resonance-based image processing. J Neurosurg 1996, 84, 972–981.
- Evans MC, Barnes J, Nielsen C, Kim LG, Clegg SL, Blair M, Leung KK, Douiri A, Boyes RG, Ourselin S, Fox NC: Volume changes in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: cognitive associations. Eur Radiol 2010, 20, 674–682.
- de la Monte SM: Quantitation of cerebral atrophy in preclinical and end-stage Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol 1989, 25, 450–459.
- Chaim TM, Duran FL, Uchida RR, Périco CA, de Castro CC, Busatto GF: Volumetric reduction of the corpus callosum in Alzheimer’s disease in vivo as assessed with voxel-based morphometry. Psychiatry Res 2007, 154, 59–68.
- Balthazar ML, Yasuda CL, Pereira FR, Pedro T, Damasceno BP, Cendes F: Differences in grey and white matter atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Eur J Neurol 2009, 16, 468–474.
- Guo X, Wang Z, Li K, Li Z, Qi Z, Jin Z, Yao L, Chen K: Voxel-based assessment of gray and white matter volumes in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurosci Lett 2010, 468, 146–150.
- Duan JH, Wang HQ, Xu J, Lin X, Chen SQ, Kang Z, Yao ZB: White matter damage of patients with Alzheimer’s disease correlated with the decreased cognitive function. Surg Radiol Anat 2006, 28, 150–156.
- Jenkins, R, Fox NC, Rossor AM, Harvey RJ, Rossor MN: Intracranial volume and Alzheimer Disease. Arch Neurol 2000, 57, 220–224.
- Wegiel J, Wisniewski HM, Dziewiatkowski J, Badmajew E, Tarnawski M, Reisberg B, Mlodzik B, Mony J, De Leon MJ, Miller DC: Cerebellar atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease – clinicopathological correlations. Brain Res 1999, 818, 41–50.
- Oliveira PP Jr, Nitrini R, Busatto G, Buchpiguel C, Sato JR, Amaro E Jr: Use of SVM methods with surfacebased cortical and volumetric subcortical measurements to detect Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 2010, 4, 1263–1272.