Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Adv Clin Exp Med
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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2013, vol. 22, nr 5, September-October, p. 739–744

Publication type: review article

Language: English

The Biological Role of Carnosine and Its Possible Applications in Medicine

Rola biologiczna karnozyny i możliwości jej zastosowania w medycynie

Sandra Budzeń1,B,C,D, Joanna Rymaszewska2,A,E,F

1 PhD studies, Department of Physiotherapy, Wroclaw Physical Education Academy, Poland

2 Research Unit of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry & Behavioral Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

Abstract

The article reviews current literature on the biological role of carnosine, its properties and use as a supplement in periods of intense physical activity. Studies carried out on laboratory animals and humans have shown that carnosine can have a beneficial influence on the organism. Carnosine is found naturally mainly in the skeletal muscles, central nervous system, olfactory neurons and in the lens of the eye in some vertebrates, including humans. Due to its antioxidant, protective, chelating, anti-glycation activity, this dipeptide can be used to prevent and treat diseases such as diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the sense organs and cancers. It may also cure or alleviate many other disorders thanks to its wide spectrum of activity. Carnosine is already used by athletes to achieve better results, due to its buffering feature, which contributes to the maintenance of the acid-base balance in the muscles. Future studies on the influence of carnosine on the human organism may lead to the therapeutic use of this dipeptide for many diseases, in addition to improving both amateur and professional athletes’ results.

Streszczenie

Praca zawiera przegląd aktualnego piśmiennictwa dotyczącego biologicznej roli karnozyny, jej właściwości oraz zastosowania jako suplementu w aktywności fizycznej. W badaniach przeprowadzonych na zwierzętach eksperymentalnych oraz ludziach wykazano dobroczynny wpływ karnozyny na organizm. Karnozyna występuje naturalnie, głównie w mięśniach szkieletowych, ośrodkowym układzie nerwowym, neuronach węchowych, a nawet w soczewce oka u niektórych kręgowców, w tym u ludzi. Ze względu na swoje antyoksydacyjne, ochronne, chelatujące oraz antyglikacyjne działanie dipeptyd ten może zostać wykorzystany do zapobiegania i leczenia chorób, takich jak np. cukrzyca, choroby neurodegeneracyjne, choroby narządów zmysłu, nowotwory oraz wiele innych. Karnozyna jest już wykorzystywana przez sportowców w celu uzyskiwania lepszych wyników, co może zostać osiągnięte dzięki jej właściwościom buforującym, pozwalającym na utrzymanie równowagi kwasowo-zasadowej w mięśniach. Dalsze badania nad wpływem karnozyny na ludzki organizm mogą spowodować, że stanie się ona, poza naturalnym elementem poprawy wydolności w sporcie, czynnikiem terapeutycznym w przypadku wielu chorób.

Key words

carnosine, antioxidant effect, dementia, somatic diseases, dietary supplementation.

Słowa kluczowe

karnozyna, działanie antyoksydacyjne, otępienie, choroby somatyczne, suplementacja diety.

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