Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2013, vol. 22, nr 5, September-October, p. 699–703

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Analysis of the Concentrations of Interleukin 18 in Amniotic Fluid in the Second and the Third Trimesters of Pregnancy

Analiza stężeń IL-18 w płynie owodniowym w II i III trymestrze ciąży

Dominika Klimkiewicz-Blok1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Jerzy Florjański1,C,E,F, Jerzy Zalewski2,A,C,E,F, Radosław Blok3,C,D,E

1 Second Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

2 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Public Health, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

3 First Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

Abstract

Background. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a glycoprotein produced by macrophages. IL-18 influences different populations of T lymphocytes and NK cells and stimulates the production of INF-gamma by these cells. IL-18 induces both Th1 and Th2 response. That is why IL-18 is a unique cytokine.
Objectives. The aim of work was to examine the concentration of interleukin 18 in amniotic fluid in the 2nd and the 3rd trimesters of physiological pregnancies.
Material and Methods. 74 pregnant women were qualified to take part in the studies. The amniotic fluid samples by amniocentesis were taken from the patients. Two groups were distinguished among the examined patients: group I – 45 pregnant women qualified for genetic amniocentesis between the 15th and 19th week of pregnancy. All findings of the cytogenetic tests were normal. Group II: 29 pregnant women in their 3rd trimester were qualified for diagnostic amniocentesis in order to determine the biological maturity of the fetuses. The concentration of IL-18 was marked with the immunoenzymatic method ELISA with the use of the kit produced by the MBL company. Method sensitivity was < 12.5 pg/mL.
Results. In the 2nd trimester of pregnancy the average concentration of IL-18 in the amniotic fluid was 454.69 pg/mL and in the 3rd trimester was 71.73 pg/mL. The obtained data proved that the average concentration of IL-18 in the 2nd trimester was significantly higher than in the 3rd trimester. The obtained differences in the findings were statistically significant (p < 0.05).
Conclusion. The presence and high levels of IL-18 in the amniotic fluid in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy indicate an early process of initiation of immunological mechanisms by the fetus. An average concentration of IL-18 in the amniotic fluid was significantly higher in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy than in the 3rd trimester, which may indicate the influential role of IL-18 on the development of the immune response in the fetus in this period of gestation.

Streszczenie

Wprowadzenie.Interleukina 18 (IL-18) to glikoproteina wytwarzana głównie przez makrofagi. IL-18 oddziałuje na różne populacje limfocytów T i komórki NK oraz stymuluje wytwarzanie IFN-gamma przez te komórki. IL-18 indukuje zarówno odpowiedź typu komórkowego, jak i humoralnego. Pod tym względem IL-18 jest cytokiną unikatową.
Cel pracy. Badanie stężeń IL-18 w płynie owodniowym w II i III trymestrze ciąż fizjologicznych.
Materiał i metody. Do badań zakwalifikowano 74 ciężarne, od których pobrano płyn owodniowy za pomocą amniopunkcji. Wśród badanych pacjentek wyodrębniono 2 grupy: grupę I – 45 ciężarnych zakwalifikowanych do amniopunkcji genetycznej między 15 a 19 tyg.; wszystkie otrzymane wyniki badań cytogenetycznych były prawidłowe oraz grupę II – 29 ciężarnych w III trymestrze ciąży, które zakwalifikowano do amniopunkcji diagnostycznej, aby określić dojrzałość biologiczną płodów. Stężenia IL-18 oznaczano immunoenzymatycznie (ELISA), używając zestawu firmy MBL. Czułość metody wynosiła < 12,5 pg/ml.
Wyniki. W II trymestrze ciąży średnie stężenie IL-18 w wodach płodowych wyniosło 454,69 pg/ml, a w III trymestrze 71,73 pg/ml. Średnie stężenie IL-18 w płynie owodniowym było istotnie większe w II trymestrze ciąży. Uzyskane w wynikach różnice były istotne statystycznie (p < 0,05).
Wnioski. Obecność i duże stężenia IL-18 w wodach płodowych w II trymestrze ciąży świadczą o wczesnym procesie uruchomienia mechanizmów immunologicznych przez płód. Średnie stężenie IL-18 w płynie owodniowym jest istotnie większe w II trymestrze ciąży niż w III trymestrze, co może oznaczać, że IL-18 odgrywa istotną rolę w rozwoju odpowiedzi immunologicznej płodu w tym okresie ciąży.

Key words

interleukin 18, amniotic fluid.

Słowa kluczowe

interleukina 18, płyn owodniowy.

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