Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2013, vol. 22, nr 2, March-April, p. 245–252

Publication type: original article

Language: English

The Effects of Pulsed and Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Fields on E-cadherin and Type IV Collagen in Gingiva: A Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

Wpływ impulsowego i sinusoidalnego pola elektromagnetycznego na E-kadherynę i kolagen typu IV w dziąśle – badanie histopatologiczne i immunohistochemiczne

Arzum G. Dogru1,, Selcuk Tunik2,, Veysi Akpolat3,, Mehmet Dogru4,, Ebru E. Saribas1,, Filiz A. Kaya1,, Yusuf Nergiz2,

1 Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Dicle, Turkey

2 Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Dicle, Turkey

3 Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Dicle, Turkey

4 Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Dicle, Turkey

Abstract

Background. The potential beneficial effects of extremely low frequency pulsed and sinusoidal electromagnetic fields have been shown on many tissues. Gingival epithelium plays an important role in immunosurveillance of the periodontal tissues. The epithelium acts as a mechanical barrier through cell junctions such as E-cadherin.
Objectives. Investigation of the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on gingiva.
Material and Methods. Twenty-seven male Wistar albino rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 9), SEMF group (n = 9), PEMF group (n = 9). The SEMF and PEMF (pulse time: 25 µsn, pulse frequency: 50 Hz) groups were subjected to 1.5 mT, 50 Hz, exposure 6 h a day, 5 days a week for 28 days in methacrylate boxes. The gingival tissue pieces processed for routine histological and immunohistochemical examination and tissue sections were stained with H–E and Masson trichrome. In addition, E-cadherin and type IV collagen expressions were examined immunohistochemically.
Results. Intraepithelial lymphocytes and proliferation of epithelial cells increased in both electromagnetic field groups. The over-expressions of E-cadherin on gingival epithelium was detected in the PEMF and SEMF groups. The expression level of type IV collagen was not significant between the control and electromagnetic field treated groups, except for a significant increase in the basal cell layer of the PEMF group, as compared to the control and SEMF groups.
Conclusion. PEMF and SEMF have a local pro-inflammatory effect on gingiva, leading to an increase in E-cadherin level but not type IV collagen. Both PEMF and SEMF can be used as a supportive device in the treatment of gingival diseases, especially those which lead to defects in the epithelial barrier.

Streszczenie

Wprowadzenie.Potencjalne korzystne działanie impulsowych sinusoidalnych pól elektromagnetycznych bardzo niskiej częstotliwości wykazano w wielu tkankach. Nabłonek dziąseł odgrywa ważną rolę w dozorze immunologicznym tkanek przyzębia. Nabłonek działa jako bariera mechaniczna w połączeniach komórkowych, takich jak e-kadheryna.
Cel pracy. Zbadanie wpływu pól magnetycznych bardzo niskiej częstotliwości na dziąsła.
Materiał i metody. Do badań włączono 27 szczurów albinosów płci męskiej szczepu Wistar. Szczury podzielono na trzy grupy: grupę kontrolną (n = 9), SEMF (n = 9), PEMF (n = 9). Osobniki w grupach SEMF i PEMF (czas impulsu: 25 μsn, częstotliwość impulsu: 50 Hz) poddano działaniu pola magnetycznego 1,5 mT, 50 Hz, ekspozycja po 6 godz./dobę, 5 dni w tygodniu przez 28 dni w klatkach z metakrylanu. Tkankę dziąsła przygotowano do rutynowego badania histologicznego i immunohistochemicznego. Skrawki tkanek barwiono HE i wg Massona. Ponadto zbadano immunohistochemicznie ekspresję e-kadheryny i kolagenu typu IV.
Wyniki. liczba limfocytów śródnabłonkowych i proliferacja komórek nabłonkowych zwiększyły się w obu grupach poddanych wpływowi pola elektromagnetycznego. Nadmierną ekspresję e-kadheryny w nabłonku dziąsła wykryto w grupach PEMF i SEMF. Ekspresja kolagenu typu IV nie była znacząca między grupą kontrolną i grupami poddanymi wpływowi pola elektromagnetycznego, z wyjątkiem znacznego zwiększenia się warstwy komórek podstawnych w grupie PEMF, w porównaniu do grupy kontrolnej i SEMF.
Wnioski. PEMF i SEMF wywierają miejscowe działanie prozapalne na dziąsła, co prowadzi do wzrostu stężenia e-kadheryny, ale nie kolagenu typu IV. Zarówno PEMF, jak i SEMF mogą być stosowane do wspomagania leczenia chorób dziąseł, zwłaszcza takich, które prowadzą do uszkodzenia bariery nabłonka.

Key words

type IV collagen, E-cadherin, histopathology, pulsed and sinusoidal electromagnetic fields.

Słowa kluczowe

kolagen typu IV, E-kadheryna, histopatologia, impulsowe i sinusoidalne pola elektromagnetyczne.

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