Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2011, vol. 20, nr 3, May-June, p. 275–284

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Analysis of Marker Expression in High Endothelial Venules in Chronic Periodontitis

Analiza ekspresji markerów żyłek z wysokim śródbłonkiem w przewlekłym zapaleniu przyzębia

Aldona Kasprzak1,, Anna Surdacka2,, Maciej Tomczak2,, Miłosz Hausmann1,, Wiesława Przybyszewska1,, Agnieszka Seraszek3,, Joanna Jagielska3,, Elżbieta Kaczmarek3,, Andrzej Marszałek3,

1 Department of Histology and Embryology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland

2 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland

3 Department of Clinical Pathomorphology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland

Abstract

Background. In chronic periodontitis (CP) the proliferation of gingival blood vessels is accompanied by qualitative alterations in microvessels, including the development of high endothelial venules (HEVs). Alterations in antigen expression of high endothelial cells (HECs) may be responsible for chronic periodontal inflammation.
Objectives. This study aimed at analyzing the cellular expression of vascular markers – CD34, PECAM-1 (CD31), endoglin, ICAM-1, collagen IV and laminin – in the gingiva of CP patients, and investigating correlations between the expression of these markers and selected clinical data.
Material and Methods. The tissue material was obtained during open curettage and gingivectomy performed on 40 patients with CP, after the hygienization stage of periodontal treatment. The gingival samples were taken from the vicinity of various teeth and manifested various degrees of connective tissue attachment loss (CAL values). The ABC technique and the spatial visualization technique were used for quantitative analysis.
Results. A proliferation of gingival blood vessels was noted in the tissues from patients with CP, as opposed to the control group, including the presence of numerous HEVs. The most pronounced expression within the HEVs involved CD31, CD34 and laminin. Additionally, in these vessels a positive correlation was found between the expression of endoglin and the expression of ICAM-1. In HEVs the expression of CD34, endoglin, ICAM-1 and collagen IV was significantly higher than in ordinary gingival blood vessels. In the CP patients the expression of CD34 correlated with increased gingival grading. No significant differences in the expression of any vascular markers were found to be related to the CAL value.
Conclusion. CD34 and PECAM-1 (CD31) seem to play a significant role in the adhesion and migration of leukocytes through gingival HEVs. The high expression of laminin in HEC basement membranes seems to confirm role of the protein in the formation of gingival blood vessels in CP. The direct relationship between the expression of CD34 and grading may indicate that CD34 plays a role in the persistence of chronic inflammation in the periodontium.

Streszczenie

Wprowadzenie. W przewlekłym zapaleniu przyzębia (CP) rozplemowi naczyń krwionośnych dziąsła towarzyszą zmiany jakościowe mikronaczyń, w tym powstawanie żyłek z wysokim śródbłonkiem (HEVs). Zmiany w ekspresji antygenów komórek wysokiego śródbłonka (HECs) mogą odpowiadać za utrzymywanie się stanu zapalnego przyzębia.
Cel pracy. Analiza komórkowej ekspresji markerów naczyniowych: CD34, PECAM-1 (CD31), endoglin (CD105), ICAM-1 (CD54), kolagenu IV i lamininy w dziąsłach pacjentów z CP oraz jej korelacji z wybranymi danymi klinicznymi.
Materiał i metody. Materiał tkankowy uzyskano podczas zabiegu kiretażu otwartego z gingiwektomią u 40 pacjentów z CP, po przeprowadzeniu fazy higienizacyjnej leczenia periodontologicznego. Badano fragmenty dziąsła z okolicy różnych zębów i o różnych wartościach utraty przyczepu łącznotkankowego (CAL). Zastosowano metodę ABC oraz technikę wizualizacji przestrzennej do analizy ilościowej.
Wyniki. U pacjentów z CP wykazano rozplem naczyń krwionośnych dziąsła, w tym obecność licznych HEVs. Największa ekspresja w obrębie dziąsłowych HEVs dotyczyła CD31, CD34 i lamininy. Dodatkowo w tych naczyniach obserwowano pozytywną korelację między ekspresją endogliny i ICAM-1. Istotnie większa ekspresja w HEVs w porównaniu ze zwykłymi naczyniami dziąsła dotyczyła: CD34, endogliny, ICAM-1 i kolagenu IV. Ekspresja cząsteczki CD34 korelowała ze zwiększeniem aktywności zapalnej (grading) w dziąsłach pacjentów z CP. Nie wykazano istotnych różnic w ekspresji żadnego z markerów naczyniowych w zależności od wartości parametru CAL.
Wnioski. Istotną rolę w adhezji i migracji leukocytów przez dziąsłowe HEVs wydają się odgrywać CD34 i PECAM 1 (CD31). Duża ekspresja lamininy w błonach podstawnych HEC może potwierdzać rolę tego białka przede wszystkim w formowaniu nowych naczyń dziąsła w CP. Wprost proporcjonalna zależność między ekspresją CD34 i grading wskazuje na rolę tego antygenu w utrzymywaniu się przewlekłego procesu zapalnego w przyzębiu.

Key words

chronic periodontitis, high endothelium venules (HEVs), immunocytochemistry, spatial visualization technique

Słowa kluczowe

przewlekłe zapalenie przyzębia, żyłki z wysokim śródbłonkiem (HEVs), immunocytochemia, technika wizualizacji przestrzennej

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