Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2010, vol. 19, nr 2, March-April, p. 245–249

Publication type: review article

Language: English

Tachycardiomyopathy in Human and Animals – Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Prognosis

Tachykardiomiopatia u ludzi i zwierząt – patofizjologia, leczenie i rokowanie

Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak1,, Przemysław Skoczyński2,, Jacek Gajek2,

1 Department of Internal Diseases and Parasitology with Horse, Dog, and Cat Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland

2 Department and Clinic of Cardiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

Abstract

Tachycardiomyopathy is a form of secondary dilated cardiomyopathy caused by a high heart rate leading to left ventricle dilation and systolic function impairment. It is a result of inadequate systole caused by long-lasting or frequently recurrent supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias as well as frequent ventricular extrasystole. The signs of tachycardiomyopathy, if treated causally, are fully reversible, in contrast to other types of cardiomyopathy. However, if it is diagnosed too late and is not treated properly, the progressive nature of the process leads to symptoms of severe congestive heart failure or to sudden death caused by ventricular arrhythmias. This disease is difficult to diagnose because dilation of the ventricles of heart may be the cause or the result of tachyarrhythmias. The high prevalence of atrial fibrillation and the increased number of elderly persons with this kind of arrhythmia makes atrial fibrillation-induced tachycardiomyopathy one of the leading causes of congestive heart failure in humans. This article presents the pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis of tachycardiomyopathy in human and animals.

Streszczenie

Tachykardiomiopatia jest jedną z postaci kardiomiopatii rozstrzeniowej, której przyczyną rozwoju jest wysoka częstotliwość rytmu serca prowadząca do rozstrzeni lewej komory i pogorszenia jej czynności skurczowej. Przyczyną rozwoju tachykardiomiopatii są długo trwające lub często nawracające epizody tachyarytmii zarówno nadkomorowej, jak i komorowej oraz liczna ekstrasystolia komorowa. W odróżnieniu od innych rodzajów kardiomiopatii rozstrzeniowych następstwa tachykardiomiopatii mogą się całkowicie wycofać, jeśli jej przyczyna zostanie odpowiednio wcześnie zdiagnozowana i usunięta. W przeciwnym razie wiedzie do rozwoju objawowej zastoinowej niewydolności serca lub nagłego zgonu sercowego w mechanizmie komorowych zaburzeń rytmu. Coraz częstsze występowanie migotania przedsionków, zwłaszcza w populacji chorych w podeszłym wieku, czyni tę arytmię jedną z wiodących przyczyn rozwoju niewydolności krążenia. Niniejsza praca przedstawia patofizjologię, leczenie oraz rokowanie w tachykardiomiopatii u ludzi i zwierząt.

Key words

tachycardiomyopathy, heart, arrhythmias.

Słowa kluczowe

tachykardiomiopatia, serce, arytmie.

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